A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure. The hot fluid boler is then circulated out of the boiler for use in various bailer process or heating applications. A safety valve is required to prevent over pressurisation and possible explosion oiler of a boiler.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Superheated biler Steam beiler Boilers
- 3 Supercritical boilers
- 4 Hydronic boilers
- 5 Accessories
- 5.1 Boiler boilet fittings
- 5.2 Steam accessories
- 5.3 Combustion accessories
- 6 Controlling bouler draft
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External bolier Links
Digram of a fire-tube boiler efficiency boiler.
Construction of boilers is mainly limited to copper, steel energy efficient boiler controls and cast iron. In live steam toys, brass is often used.
Sources of heat for the boiler can be energy saving boiler controls the combustion of fuels such as wood, coal, oil boiler power plant efficiency or natural gas. Electric boilers use resistance or immersion type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a boiler controllers heat source for generating steam. Heat recovery steam generators, boiler or HRSGs use the heat steam boiler rejected from other processes such as gas turbines.
Boilers can also be improve boiler efficiency classified into fire-tube, water-tube boilers or cast iron sectional depending on whether the heat source is wood boilers inside or outside the tubes or in the case of central boiler the cast iron sectional the design and manufacture of the boiler. The goal in corn boiler all cases is to maximize the heat transfer between the water and the hot gases heating recovery boiler it. For example, steam wood boiler locomotives have fire-tube boilers, where the fire is inside the tube and the water on the outside. outdoor wood boilers These usually take the form of a set of straight tubes passing limp bizkit boiler through the boiler through which hot combustion gases flows.
outdoor wood boiler
Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
In water-tube burnham boilers boilers the water flows through a large number of narrow tubes residential boilers around the fire. The tubes frequently have a large number of bends and sometimes fins to maximize the surface boiler room area. This type of boiler is generally preferred in high pressure applications since the high pressure coal boiler water/steam is contained within wood fired boilers narrow pipes which can contain the pressure with home heating boilers a thinner wall.
In a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the munchkin boilers water is contained inside cast iron sections. These sections are mechanically assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
Diagram of a Cornish Boiler.
There are boiler water treatment other types of boilers, largely of combi boilers historical interest. For example, the Cornish boiler developed around 1812 by condensing boiler Richard Trevithick for generating steam for steam engines. This was both stronger and burnham boiler more efficient than the simple boilers which preceded it. It was a cylindrical water tank around 27 feet long peerless boilers and 7 feet in diameter, and had a coal gas boilers furnace placed in a single cylindrical tube corn boilers about three feet wide which passed centrally along the long axis corn burning boiler of the tank. The fire was tended from one end and the hot gases from it travelled along the gas boiler tube and out of the other end, to be circulated back along flues running munchkin boiler along the outside of the boiler before being steam boilers expelled via the chimney. This was later improved upon in the Lancashire boiler double boiler which had a pair of furnaces in separate tubes side-by-side. residential boiler This was an important improvement since each furnace could be stoked at different times, electric boilers allowing one to be cleaned whilst the other was operating. These designs outside wood boiler are really primitive fire tube boilers, and led on to the Scotch boiler which wood boiler plans remains a popular fire tube design.
Superheated Steam Boilers
A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Most boilers heat water until it boils, and then water boiler the steam is used at saturation temperature (i.e., saturated steam). Superheated steam boilers boil the water and then crown boilers further heat the steam in a superheater. dutch oven boiler This provides steam at much higher pressure, and increases the overall thermal efficiency of the steam plant johnson outdoor wood boilers due to the fact that all of wood burning boiler the added heat can be extracted to perform useful work.
Superheated steam presents unique aga gas cooker boiler safety concerns, however, since the steam is at such high pressure (sometimes 1200 psi or higher). If cleaver brooks boilers there dunkirk boilers is a leak in the steam piping, water at such high pressure/temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to biomass boiler anyone entering its flow. Since the escaping steam will boiler inspector initially be completely superheated vapor, it is not easy to boiler retubing see the leak, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.
Steam generation power plant.
Supercritical boilers are used for the generation of electric power. They operate at "supercritical pressure". In contrast oil boiler to a waste oil boiler "subcritical boiler", a supercritical boiler has no water - steam separation. There is no generation of wood burning boilers steam because the pressure is regulated above the "critical boiler parts pressure" at which steam bubbles can form. Thus, the boiler tubes fluid generated is called "supercritical fluid". It passes below the critical point as it boilers exhibition does work in the high pressure turbine and enters the generator's condensor. This is more efficient resulting condensing boilers in slightly less fuel use and therefore less peerless boiler greenhouse gas production.
Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat typically for residential uses. They are the typical boiler operation power plant for central heating systems home coal boiler fitted to houses in northern Europe, as opposed to the forced-air furnaces or wood burning stoves more common boiler services in North America. "Boiler" is clearly a misnomer boilers fair for this kind of device, which is really nothing but a large water heater in which boilers exposition the water is never intended to boil; industrial boilers but the name is universal and unlikely ever outdoor boiler to change. The hydronic boiler operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature and circulating that outside wood boilers fluid throughtout the home typically by way of radiators, boiler accidents baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid can be boiler fired outdoor wood heated by any means....gas, wood, fuel oil, etc, but in coal boilers built-up areas where piped gas is available, natural gas is currently the most economical combi boiler and therefore the usual choice. The fluid is in an enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of corn burning furnaces and boilers a motorized pump. Most new systems are fitted with condensing boilers for greater efficiency.
Hydronic systems corn burning outdoor boiler are being used more and more in new construction in residential boiler maintenance North America for several reasons. utica boiler Among the reasons are:
- They are more efficient and more economical than forced-air systems (although initial installation can be more expensive, because adding a wood boiler to your boiler of the cost of the copper and aluminum).
- The baseboard copper pipes central heating boiler and aluminum fins take up less room and use less metal than corn burning boilers the bulky steel ductwork clever brooks boilers required for forced-air systems.
- They provide more even, less fluctuating temperatures crown boiler than forced-air systems. The copper baseboard pipes hold and release heat over a longer period of time than air does, surplus boiler equipment so the furnace doesn't have to switch off and on boiler low water cutoff testing as much. (Copper heats mostly boiler service and sales through conduction and radiation, whereas forced-air heats mostly through forced convection. Air has much lower thermal conductivity and higher specific heat than copper; circulating fluidized bed boilers however, convection la-mont boiler results in faster heat loss of air compared to copper. See also thermal mass.)
- They do residential heating boiler not dry out the interior air as much.
- They do not introduce any dust, allergens, mold, or (in the case of boiler manufacturers a faulty heat columbia boilers exchanger) combustion byproducts into the living space.
Forced-air heating does have some advantages, however. See forced-air heating.
- Safety valve
- Water column: corn stoves boilers to electric boiler help the operator tell if there is a satisfactory level of outdoor boilers fluid in the boiler, a water gauge or water column is provided.
- Bottom blowdown outdoor wood furnace boiler valves
- Surface blowdown line
- Circulating pump
- Main steam stop valve
- Steam traps
Main steam pellet boilers stop/Check valve used on multiple boiler instaltions.
- Fuel oil system
- Gas system
- Coal system
- Automatic combustion systems
Most boilers vaillant boiler now depend on boiler cleaning mechanical draft equipment rather than natural draft. This is because natural draft is subject to outside air conditions boiler feed pumps and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace, as well as the chimney height. All these bryan boiler factors make proper draft hard to attain and therefore make mechanical dunkirk boiler draft oklahoma boilers license equipment much more economical.
There are three types of mechanical draft:
1) Induced draft: This is obtained residential steam boilers one of two ways, the first being through use of a steam jet. The steam jet forces steam into the stack boiler chemistry and allows for ceramic ferrules for boiler tubes a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draft hartford steam boiler in the furnace. This method was more common on older steam driven locomotives. The second method is by simply using an induced draft fan outdoor corn boiler (ID pellet fired boiler fan) which sucks flue gases out of the furnace and up the stack. All induced wood fired boiler draft furnaces have a negative pressure.
2) Forced draft: With this method draft is obtained by forcing air into the furnace biomass boiler sales by means of a fan (FD fan) and ductwork. Air is usually boiler combination gas heater water passed through used steam boilers an air heater; which, as the name suggests, heats the air going boiler maker into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency boiler operations of the boiler. Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted to the furnace. Forced draft furnaces have a positive pressure.
3) Balanced fuel oil boiler draft: Balanced draft is obtained through use of both induced indoor wood boiler and forced draft. lochinvar boilers This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler makeup boiler drum passes. The induced draft fan works in conjunction with the forced draft fan allowing the model boiler furnace pressure to be maintained oil boilers slightly below atmospheric.
- Electric water boiler (for drinking water)
- Firebox (used by railway locomotives)
- Heat-only boiler boiler insulation station
- Hot water heater
- Pulverized coal-fired boiler
- Steam generator boiler plate (nuclear power)
- A short history of steamboat boilers
- Water Heater Resource Info, central boilers articles, and more on boilers and heaters
- Frederick M Steingress, Low pressure boilers. American Technical Publishers, 1986, ISBN 0-8269-4407-8
- Different Types Of Boilers - The 3 Main Types Of Boiler.
- Encyclopedia of Earth: Boilers
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