This article is about the building material. For the adhesive medical dressing, see Sticking plaster.
Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is blaster a type of building material based on laster calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally CaSO4*0.5H2O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150ºC. CaSO4 · 2H2O → paster CaSO4 · 0.5H2O + 1.5H2O (released as steam).
A large gypsum deposit at Montmartre in Paris poaster is the source of the name. When the dry plaster powder is venetian plaster mixed with water, it re-forms into gypsum, initially as a paste but plaster casting eventually hardening into a solid. The structure consists of sheets of Ca²+ and plaster SO4²- ions held together by hydrogen bonds in casting plaster the water molecules. The grip between these sheets is easily broken, so plaster is fairly soft.
Plaster is used as a building material similar to plaster caster molds mortar or cement. Like those materials plaster plaster of paris starts as a dry powder that is mixed with water to venetian plasters form a paste, which then hardens. Unlike those materials plaster remains quite soft after plaster cast drying, and can be easily manipulated with metal tools or even sandpaper. These characteristics make plaster suitable italian plasters for a finishing, rather than a load-bearing material.
- 1 Use spatula plasters in room interiors
- 2 Use in theatrical plaster repair and movie sets
- 3 Use in architecture
- 4 Use plaster sculpture in sculptural arts
- 5 Lime plaster
- 6 Earthen pool plaster plaster
- 7 Cement plaster
- 8 Passive fire protection
- 9 Trade italian plaster jurisdiction
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
Use in polished plaster room interiors
Plaster was a common building material for wall surfaces in how to plaster a process known as lath and plaster, faux plaster whereby a series of wooden strips are covered with a semi-dry plaster and then hardened into surface. The plaster used in how to apply plaster to curved ceilings most lath-and-plaster construction was mainly broken legs plaster casts lime plaster (see below). Lime plaster cure time plaster of paradise is about a month. To stabilize the lime plaster during curing, small amounts of Plaster of Paris were mixed plaster of paris molds into the putty. Because Plaster of Paris sets plaster washers quickly, "retardants" were used to slow setting time enough to allow workers to mix large working pool plaster specification quantities of lime putty plaster. A modern form of this method uses expanded metal mesh over lime plaster wood or metal structures, which allows a great freedom of design as it is adaptable to marmorino venetian plaster both simple and compound curves. Today this building method has been almost completely replaced with plaster casts drywall, also composed mostly of gypsum plaster. In both these methods a primary advantage plaster crafts of the material is that it is resistant to a fire kissingtropical fish plaster chalkware wall plaque within a room and so can mustard plaster assist in reducing or eliminating structural damage or destruction provided the fire is promptly extinguished.
Plaster expands while plaster gauze hardening, then contracts slightly just before hardening completely. This makes plaster theater mouldings plaster excellent for use in molds, and it is often used as an artistic material for casting. Plaster plaster walls is also commonly run plaster spread over an armature (form), usually made of wire, mesh or other materials. In medicine, it is also widely used application of venetian plaster as a support for broken bones; a bandage impregnated with plaster is moistened and plaster wall plaque then wrapped around the damaged limb, setting into a close-fitting yet pool plaster mix easily removed tube, known as a cast.
Plaster moulding is made using a sliding jig that holds a die venetian plaster faux finishes on walls with a venetian plaster technique cross section of the moulding.
Use in theatrical and movie sets
One of the plaster caster skills used in movie and theatrical sets is that of "plasterer", and the material is often used to simulate the venetian plaster faux finish appearance of surfaces of wood, stone, or metal. Nowadays, plasterers are just as jobs roswell georgia faux finish plaster paint likely to use expanded polystyrene, although the job title remains plaque plaster wall unchanged.
Use in architecture
19th century plasterwork from House of Borujerdies in Kashan, Iran.
Plaster may plaster faux finish also be plaster home decor used to create complex detailing for use in room interiors. faux plaster finishes These may be geometric (simulating wood or stone) or naturalistic (simulating leaves, vines, and flowers) These are also often used to simulate wood or stone detailing how to make a plaster cast of a human face found how to venetian plaster in more substantial buildings. A gypsum plaster, leavened with polystyrene beads is also currently in use as plaster of paris face masks a proprietary spray fireproofing product, called MK6, sold by W.R. Grace & Co. - Conn.
Use in sculptural arts
Plaster may cementitious plaster insulation be cast directly into a damp clay how to make plaster mold. In creating this mold the sculptor will be working directly "in instructions for plaster faux finish the negative". This method requires substantial skill and experience but is quite plaster her fast and is suitable for producing shallow relief decorations.
Plaster is also often used as an intermediate plaster of paris recipe stage in the production of large cast sculptures (typically of cast bronze) or in the plaster of paris wall hangings creation of carved stone, particularly for building decoration. The original work is usually first modeled plaster trowel in wet clay over a create faux finishes with paint venetian plaster supporting structure called an armature. From this either piece molds (molds designed for making multiple copies) or decorative plaster waste molds (for single use) would be made of plaster. This "negative" image, if properly designed, may faux finish ventian plaster be used to how to paint faux finishes plasters produce clay productions, which when fired in a kiln become terra cotta building decorations, or these may be used to create cast concrete italian plasters faux finish venetian plaster sculptures. If a plaster positive was desired lathe and plaster this would be constructed or cast to form a durable image artwork. As a paint faux finishes plasters model for stonecutters this would be sufficient. If intended for producing a bronze casting plaster cast woman the plaster positive could be further worked to produce smooth surfaces. An plaster repair alternative advantage of this plaster image is ancient plaster that it is relatively cheap; should a patron approve of the durable image and be willing how to plaster a wall to bear further expense, subsequent molds could be made for the creation of a wax image to be used in lost wax casting, painting plaster walls a far more expensive process. In lieu of producing a bronze image plaster over insulation panels suitable for outdoor use repairing plaster walls the plaster image may be painted to resemble a metal image; stucco plaster such sculptures are suitable only for presentation in a weather-protected environment.
Lime plaster is a mixture of venetian plaster class calcium hydroxide and sand (or other inert fillers). Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes the plaster to set venetian plaster techniques walls by transforming the calcium hydroxide into calcium carbonate best faux finish for old plaster walls (limestone). Whitewash is based on the same chemistry.
To make lime plaster, Limestone blue board and veneer plaster application (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce quicklime (calcium oxide). faux finish plaster Water is then added to produce slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), which is sold as a white powder. Additional water faux finish plaster venetian is added to form a paste prior to use. The faux finish products venetian plaster gels paste may be stored in air tight containers. Once exposed to how to make a plaster shark the atmosphere, the calcium hydroxide turns back into limestone, causing how to make plaster of paris the plaster to set.
Lime plaster is used for true frescoes. Pigments, diluted in water, are applied to imperial plaster the still wet plaster. The pigments bind with the plaster as it sets.
Earthen plaster is a plaster board mixture of clay, sand and fibre. One of the plaster casters most common fibres used is straw, although animal hair or dung has been a common additive plaster spraying over the centuries. Earthen plaster has seen a plaster stencil recent resurgence in its use in conjunction with strawbale building. Earthen unfinished plaster art for sale plaster can be scuplted and colored by the type of clay used or other mineral additives. Other common additives venitian plaster and finishes to earthen plaster include cactus juice, casein, and linseed oil. See also asbestos in plaster "earthen floors" and cob.
Cement plaster is a mixture of suitable plaster buy cheap plaster wall plaque sand, portland cement and water which is normally applied faux finish how to venetian plaster to masonry interiors and exteriors to achieve a smooth surface. Interior surfaces sometimes receive a final layer of faux finishes plaster gypsum plaster. Walls constructed with stock bricks are normally plastered how to repair plaster walls while face brick walls are not plastered. Various cement-based plasters are also used as proprietary spray fireproofing products, marmarino venetian plaster the world over. These usually plaster carving use vermiculite as lightweight aggregate. Heavy versions of such plasters are plaster of paris castle molds also in use for exterior fireproofing, to protect LPG vessels, pipe bridges and vessel skirts.
Passive fire protection
Plasters have been in use in passive fire protection, as plaster work with interior beam work fireproofing products, for many decades. They are subject to stringent bounding. Early versions of venetian plaster faux finishes walls these plasters have used asbestos fibres, which have by now been outlawed in venetian plaster school industrialised nations and have caused significant removal and re-coating work. More venetian plaster west palm beach modern plasters fall into the following categories:
- fibrous (including mineral wool)
- cement mixtures either with mineral wool or with vermiculite
- gypsum plasters, venitian plaster faux finish leavened with polystyrene beads, as well as chemical expansion agents to chess sets + unfinished + dragons + plaster decrease the density of the finished product
One differentiates between interior and exterior fireproofing. Interior products are earth plaster typically less substantial, with lower densities and lower cost. Exterior earthen plaster products have to withstand more extreme fire faux plaster finish and other environmental conditions. Exterior products are also more likely to be attractively tooled, whereas plaster ceiling their interior cousins are usually merely sprayed in place. A rough surface is typically forgiven inside of buildings as plaster ceiling medallion dropped ceilings often hide them. Exterior fireproofing plasters are losing ground to more plaster columns costly intumescent and endothermic products, simply on technical merit. Trade jurisdiction on plaster pedestals unionised construction sites in plaster statues North America remains with the plasterers, regardless of whether the plaster is decorative in nature or is used in passive fire protection. Cementitious plaster walls and faux finishes and gypsum based spatula plaster plasters tend to be endothermic. Fireproofing plasters are closely related to firestop mortars. In fact, most firestop mortars can be sprayed and tooled tiger plaster mold very well, due to the unfinished plaster christmas fine detail work that is required of firestopping, which leads their mix designers to utilise concrete addmixtures, that enable easier crafts made from plaster tooling than common mortars.
In unionised construction sites in North America, plaster is installed by signatories to the OPCNIA. how to paint plaster of paris Unionised plasterers are represented by the International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers meaning of poem in plaster (BAC).
- Building construction
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- Venetian plaster
- Italian plaster
- Passive fire protection
- Wattle and daub
- International Union molds for plaster of paris of Bricklayers ornamental plaster and Allied Craftworkers
- Plasterers Union
- Plaster craft discussion forum
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