For the greeting card publisher, see Hallmark Cards.
A hallmark is an official marking made by a trusted halmark party, 'guardians of the craft' or nowadays by an assay office, on items made hallamrk of precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) that guarantees a certain purity of the metal. This should not be allmark confused with a marking, often just a number such as 925, which is hallmar done voluntarily by the manufacturer, and unfortunately does not always hallmakr reflect the true purity of the metal. halllmark A hallmark is only applied after the item has been assayed to determine its purity. Often the hallmark hallmark is made up of several elements including: the type of hallmark cards metal, the maker and the year of the marking.
Merriam-Webster also defines hallmark channel the metaphorical use of hallmark as: "a distinguishing characteristic, trait, or feature <the hallmark ecards dramatic flourishes which are the hallmark of the trial lawyer — Marion K. hallmark e-cards Sanders>".
- 1 History of hallmarking
- 2 List hallmark e cards of countries with statutory independent hallmarking as of 2004
- 3 Modern hallmarks
- 3.1 United Kingdom hallmarks
- 3.2 Vienna ecards hallmark Convention hallmarks
- 4 Marking techniques
- 4.1 Punching
- 4.2 Laser hallmark greeting cards hallmark ornaments marking
- 5 External links
History of hallmarking
Hallmarking may have begun as long hallmark email cards ago as the sixth century AD. Byzantine silver from this time has a hallmark stores system of five marks which have not been completely deciphered.
Hallmarking is Europe's earliest form of silver hallmarks consumer protection. Hallmarking probably started in France, the standard for silver being established in 1260, but the e cards and hallmark first town mark was established in 1275.
In 1300, King Edward I of England hallmark free ecards enacted hallmark tv channel a statute ordering that all silver articles must meet the Sterling silver standard (92.5% pure silver), and should be assayed by 'guardians hallmark store of the craft', who would then mark the item hallmark ecard with a leopard's head.
In 1327, King Edward III hallmark flowers of England granted a charter to the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths (more hallmarks on silver commonly known as the Goldsmiths' Company), marking the beginning of the Company's formal existence.
In 1355, individual maker marks were hallmark cards inc. introduced in France, which was mirrored in England in 1363, adding accountability to hallmark entertainment the two systems.
In 1427, the date letter system was established in France, allowing the accurate dating of hallmarks any hallmarked piece.
In 1478, the Assay Office was established in free hallmark ecards Goldsmiths' Hall. At this time, the date letter system was introduced in England.
In 1697, a hallmark tv channel schedule higher standard of silver, known as the Britannia standard (95.8% silver) was made compulsory in England to hallmark christmas ornaments protect the new coinage which was being melted down by silversmiths for hallmark e-card the silver. The Sterling standard was hallmark hall of fame restored in 1720.
In 1975, the 1973 Hallmarking Act was enacted, introducing Platinum marking. All four remaining assay hallmark home entertainment offices finally adopted the same date letter sequences.
The latest changes free hallmark e cards in 1999 were made to the UK hallmarking system to bring the system closer hallmark gold crown into line with the European Union (EU).
International hallmarking hallmark television channel has been plagued by difficulties, because even amongst countries which implement hallmarking, standards and enforcement varies considerably, making it difficult for hallmark homes one country to accept another's hallmarking as equivalent to its own.
List of countries with statutory independent hallmarking gold hallmarks as of 2004
- Hong Kong
- United Kingdom
United Kingdom hallmarks
Pictured here are the assay office marks - from left hallmark card studio 2005 6 to right, the leopard's head of London, the anchor of Birmingham, the hallmark collectibles Yorkshire rose of Sheffield, and the hallmark e card castle of Edinburgh.
As it now stands, the compulsory part of the UK hallmark consists of the sponsor or maker's mark, hallmark trailers the assay office mark, and the standard of fineness (in this case silver, 925 parts in pewter hallmarks 1000). These are shown in the top of the two example hallmarks. The free hallmark cards bottom example shows the hallmark free e cards extra marks that can also be struck, the lion passant, indicating Sterling silver, the date free hallmark e-cards mark (lowercase a for '2000'), and in this example, the 'Millennium mark', which was only hallmark store locator available for the years 1999 and 2000. The bottom free hallmark greeting cards example bears the Yorkshire rose mark for the Sheffield Assay Office.
Vienna Convention hallmarks
Traditionally, the hallmarks are 'struck' using steel punches. Punches are made in different hallmark channel program guide sizes, suitable for free hallmark email cards tiny pieces of jewellery to large silver platters. Punches are made in straight shank or ring shank, the former for normal punching with a hammer, hallmark card studio 2005 6 0 and the later used with a press to mark rings. The problem with hallmark hall of fame movies traditional punching hallmark free e-cards is that the process of punching displaces metal, causing some distortion of the article being marked. hallmark cards inc This means that re-finishing of the article is required after hallmarking. For this hallmark tv reason, and that off-cuts from sprues are often used for assay, many articles are sent unfinished to the assay office hallmark gifts for assay and hallmarking.
A new method of marking using lasers is hallmark television now hallmark tv listings available, which is especially valuable for delicate items and hollowware, which would be damaged or distorted by the punching process. Laser marking also hallmark free email cards means that finished articles do not need to be re-finished. Laser marking works printable hallmark cards by using high power lasers to evaporate material from hallmark birthday cards the metal surface. Two methods exist, 2D and 3D laser marking. 2D laser hallmark connections card studio marking burns the outline of the hallmarks into the hallmark movie channel object, while 3D laser marking better simulates the marks made by punching.
the hallmark channel hallmark institute of photography hallmark ornament lighthouse identify silver hallmarks
- List of basic hallmarks from various countries
- Silver Marks, Hallmarks & hallmark free cards Maker's Marks
- The Goldsmiths' Company
- International hallmarking - pipedream or hallmark gold crown stores possibility? (pdf)
- Hallmark Convention
- Swiss hallmarks